Arrangement - write a summary-response

Malc Prentice

Summary-Response can be a sentence, a paragraph or a whole essay.

This sheet is mostly about the SENTENCES you will need in the SOLUTIONS paragraph of your essays.

1) SUMMARIZE (with APA citation) a statement or a solution.

2) RESPOND (with APA citation) using EVIDENCE. Is the thing you summarized


Responses in blue

Template (One summary-response pair)

The second solution is KEYWORD1. Summary of the solution or statement for KEYWORD 1. More detail on KEYWORD 1. Transition to response using a sentence that starts "However" or "In fact" which says whether or not you think it is effective/true or not. Supporting evidence for the previous sentence. More detail or more evidence.

Endangered Animals example (One summary-response pair)

The second solution is deterrance. One group is painting Rhinos horns with pink poison which is safe for rhinos, but makes people who eat rhino horn as medicine sick ("Poisoning rhino horns," n.d.). However, this does not always work as the colour can be removed, and the poachers do not really care that the customers get sick ("Poisoning rhino horns," 2013, April 4). (link) (link)

Ethical consumption example (One summary-response pair)

The first solution is donating shoes. One donates a pair of shoes to children in the third world for every pair of shoes they sell in the first world ("Giving partner," n.d.). However, this project has exprienced problems with giving the wrong size shoes, and not supporting the delivery of shoes to the countryside. (link) (link)

Full Paragraph example

This paragraph describes three solutions to the problems of shrimp described above. Firstly, people could just stop eating shrimp, however this is unlikely unless there are more health scares like the one in 2014 ("Shrimp cause 7 deaths", 2014). Secondly, there is one Dutch company that sells free-trade shrimp, which guarantees the workers fair pay ("Free Trade Shrimp," 2014, July 2). However, research shows that only 5% of shrimp are currently fair trade ("Problems in Fair Trade", 2014, July 3). Finally, we could buy only Indian shrimp, as their industry is better regulated ("Indian Shrimp," n.d.), however this could stress their industry and possibly cause more problems. In conclusion, there are a number of possible solutions but each could cause more problems - the best option is perhaps to insist on Free Trade Shrimp at supermarkets and restaurants and hope the percentage goes up.


Example negative responses.

You're looking EVIDENCE to PROVE your response (e.g. effective/not effective, true/not true)

Look for:

bad research However, the data supporting this is very old"
"However the research was funded by the company who makes it.
bad assumptions However, this solution assumes that poor children all live in cities.
missing data However, the NGO offers no data on hyow many children are actually using the schools.
not fully effective However, only 7% of the product sold is Fair Trade, leaving 90% which might involve child labour.
not ready yet However, the project will not start until 2019, so it is unclear if it is effective."
PR However, this small project is funded by a large tobacco company, which is known for employing child labour - as such it is likely this is an attempt at improving their image rather than an honest attempt to solve the issue, as shown by the fact that they make profits of 5 billion USD each year but only spent 100,000 of that on this project ("Tobacco," n.d.)

Example positive responses

Just summarize more evidence to show that it IS effective

FOr both positive and negative responses, try to use an independent source

Paragraph Arrangement

See templates and essay examples for detail, but basically:

  1. Topic Sentence for paragraph ("This paragraph...")
  2. Keyword sentence: ("The first solution/organisation/claim is...")
    1. Summary sentence ("This is when/This is an organisation which/This article/group claims that")
      1. Summary - remember to quote and paraphrase properly
      2. Remember to CITE your source
    2. Summary detail sentence
      1. add one more sentence about the solution
      2. See write a detail sentence
      3. remember to use cohesion properly ("For example.../ In addition")
    3. Response sentence ("However, not all"..."In fact, this...")
      1. Give and CITE evidence to PROVE it is/isn't good/true/effective
    4. Response detail sentence
      1. See write a detail sentence
      2. Add one more sentence about the response
      3. Maybe more evidence, or more detail on evidence in previous sentence
      4. remember to use cohesion properly ("For example.../ In addition")
  3. Second keyword sentence: ("The second solution/organisation/claim is...")
    1. etc.
  4. Final keyword sentence: ("The final solution/organisation/claim is...")
    1. etc.
  5. Paragraph summary ("In summary there are three X - 1, 2, and 3 - of which all/none/only 2 and 3 are true/effective.").
  6. Paragraph link - do NOT link if next paragraph is conclusion. See write a paragraph summary-link



Who is doing what? Where? Why? When? How?


1) Transition and give your decision

2) Summarise your PROOF

3) When you write a detail sentence, see quote and paraphrase and use cohesion

Common Mistakes

Use the correct tense/conditional

This section below is NOT for the Solutions paragraph. If you are writing that, then stop reading here!

Argument Essay responses.

There are four basic types of argument response

1) Agree, and add new details to the points.
2) Agree and add new points to the thesis.
3) Disagree, and attack with new details
4) Disagree, and attack with new points

For example

Thesis: Cats are the best pets

Summary/Argument Response type Response
Small - can live in an apartment 1 (Agree and add detail) The average cat weighs only 3-4kg.
Small - can live in an apartment 3 (Disagree, attack point) Some cats weigh 11kg - more than dogs
Cute 1 (Agree aand add detail) For example, my friend's cat:
Cute 3 (Disagree, attack point) Not all. For example, hairless cats. Ugh.
Friendly 1 (Agree and add detail) Indeed, my friend's cat likes me
Friendly 3 (Disagree, attack point) Not all. My friend's cat bites.
Any true point 3 (Agree, add points) This is true, and they are also clean
Any true point 3 (Agree, add points) In fact, they are also self-reliant
Any true point 4 (Disagree, add new point) Perhaps true, but they also smelly
Any true point 4 (Disagree, add new point) Perhaps true, but they also expensive

Argument Essay Response Quiz

For each RESPONSE, identify what summary it is responding to


The ambition for the aid budget is 0.7% of government spending – which is less than a penny in every pound the government spends. To pay for one junior nurse in the UK (21k) you would have to take away healthcare from 50,000 people in Malawi (Government of Malawi Ministry of Health, n.d.)

After the 2nd world war the USA gave aid money to many Western European countries to rebuild their economies, through the Marshall Plan. These countries including the U.K, France and Germany are independent and wealthy countries today, and are not dependent on Aid money to provide public services.

"It is simply not true that aid is largely misused. Bad news makes headlines, so we are far more likely to hear about the incidences of corruption, than the difference aid makes to the lives of millions of individuals every day.Calling for cuts in life-saving aid because some of it is misused is irresponsible. You wouldn't suggest abandoning democracy because of a rigged election – you'd work to improve the democratic process." What summary of a criticism is this a response to?

As well as helping people living in poverty, aid boosts Britain's reputation abroad and, by helping to make the world a fairer place, reduces the risk of armed conflict.

Three of the responses above disagree with the summary, and say it is wrong. One does not. Which one?