See write an essay about refugees and asylum seekers
Thanks to TB in 2016 for Original of Intro, Background, and Refugee sections
At the moment, a lot of people around the world have been driven from their home countries – in fact there are now over 59.5 million refugees or asylum seekers (UNHCR, 2016). One of the countries from which large numbers of refugees come is Somalia, due to ongoing conflict. This is an important issue, and Japan donates a large amount of money to help solve this problem. However, some people are still suffering, and very few of the refugees and asylum seekers are accepted to Japan, so the issue is not widely known. Therefore this essay first gives some background on the situation in Somalia, then looks at the problems faced by people who have fled to neighboring countries as refugees, and after that examines those faced by people who come to Japan as asylum seekers.
This section describes the events that led to the current situation in Somalia, which caused many people to flee and become internally displaced, refugees, and asylum seekers. There are three main stages that led to the current crisis – the end of the cold war, the growth of Al-Shabab, and the 2011 drought. The first stage was the end of the cold war. Following the breakdown of the Soviet Union in 1989, the Somali government was not given any more military support by the U.S., which meant that they lost control of the domestic situation ("A victim of cold war," 2011, February 14), and could not stop the military coup. The second stage was the dramatic growth of the terrorist group, called Al – Shabab, who are recognized as the largest pro-violence rebel force in Somalia. By 2009, they had dominated south Somalia, blocking support for refugees from foreign governments for a long time ("Who are Somalia's al-Shabab?," 2015, March 5). This caused a large-scale starvation in Somalia, with more than 100,000 people suffering ("Nannminn nisinobu kiki," 2015, January 3). The third stage was a terrible drought, which occurred in 2011 - the biggest one in 60 years, which caused large-scale starvation, killing 260,000 people and pushing Somalian people into neighboring countries (Hoke, 2014, September 24). As a result of these issues, many Somalians are seeking refuge in neighbouring countries. The next section looks at some issues they face, using the example of Kenya.
Problems faced by Internally Displaced People and Refugees in nearby Countries
Many refugees from Somalia fled across the border into neighbouring countries. This section describes the kinds of problems faced by refugees who do this, focusing on the example of Kenya, and describing some solutions being attempted there. There are three main problems facing refugees in Kenya - the lack of public hygiene, the abuse of children, and the strain on the resource of the Kenyan government. The first problem is the lack of hygiene. For example, the bathrooms at these refugee camps are made up of only a galvanized iron sheet for the roof, with a small hole on the ground, which is buried when it reaches its capacity (UNHCR, 2016). Since refugees have a very limited water supply, it is almost impossible to build flushable toilets with a sewage system, and this leads to health issues. The second problem is the abuse of children. In refugee camps such as Dadaab, children have been abused, including many incidents in which children are killed or attacked by men when they play in lakes or streams ("Dadaab refugee camp," 2016). By 2015, 16 children had been killed around the Dadaab refugee camp (UNHCR, 2016). The third problem is the huge burden on the Kenyan government. The Kenyan government stated a year-long blockade of the Dadaab camp (Mohamed, 2016, May 11). The reason why the government decided this was because of the increasing frequency rate of the raids by Al – Shabab, such as Garissa University College, which had 147 victims ("Kenia daigaku syuugeki," 2015, April 5). Since 1991, Kenya has been accepting refugees from Somalia and providing them with supplies and food to live, but despite assistance from other countries including Japan, it is not nearly enough. When the Kenyan government required the financial support from the U.N, the U.N was only able to fund a quarter of the amount (Citation?). In summary there are three problems - the lack of public hygiene, the abuse of children, the strain on the Kenyan government - of which all are serious. The next paragraph looks at the some possible solutions for these three problems.
This paragraph describes three possible solutions to the issues outlined above. The main three solutions are assistance from developed countries, NGO projects, and UNHCR negotiation. The first solution is support from developed countries. In 2010, the government representatives of America, England, France, and Japan visited the Dadaab camp ("Kokurenn no yousei," 2011, October 9) leading to a U.N decision to support these refugee camps. However, there is still not enough support: for example the amount of food they are funded is only a quarter of what the Kenyan government requested (Dobbs, 2011, April 4). The second solution is NGO's project which protects children's right. Refugees are sometimes involved in rape or accident when they go out to collect wood for fuel, so some NGOs and UNHCR provide wood (UNHCR, 2016). This has been helpful in decreasing rape incidents from 4 per week to 1 (Nanbu, n.d.), which is better but still an unacceptably high number. The third solution is the negotiation of UNHCR. Kenya government has been keeping refugees from crisis since 1991. It is important role in international society, so UNHCR is asking the Kenyan government to continue to accept refugees (Mohamed, 2016, May 11). It is not working, because of worries about terrorism (Mohamed, 2016, May 11). In summary there are three possible solutions – assistance from developed countries, NGO projects, and UNHCR negotiation - of which one are fully effective. As such, many refugees choose to travel further and seek help in the developed world. The next section outlines issues faced by these asylum seekers in developed countries, using the example of Japan.
Problems Faced by Asylum Seekers in Japan
Due to the problems described in the previous section, many refugees choose to continue onwards and seek asylum in developed countries, including Japan. While at the moment, only few of the refugees from Kenya have applied for asylum in Japan, this may change. In addition, Japan is a developed country, and can offer an example of the kinds of problems asylum seekers face in such countries. Therefore, this section describes the problems faced by asylum seekers in Japan, and some solutions being attempted here. There are three main problems – the lack of healthcare, the difficulty to find jobs and get visa, and the violation of human rights. The first problem is the lack of healthcare. In the Narita immigration center, three people died in 2011 (Nimura, 2014). In the immigration center, immigrants live in poor conditions, without sufficient food or a livable environment. These conditions have been linked to several health issues including stroke, mental illness, and bronchitis (Ando, 2012). The second problem is the difficultly to get a visa. More than 150 people are seen as illegal immigrants because Japanese law is very strict, and very few asylum seekers are accepted as refugees, a situation greeted by many critisisms by other countries and United Nations (Nimura, 2014). The third problem is violation of human rights in Narita immigration center. In fact, one person died in the immigration center after asking his guard to take him to hospital (Nimura, 2014). In summary there are three problems – the lack of healthcare, the difficulty to find jobs and get visa - of which the most serious is the violation for human rights. The next paragraph looks at the some possible solutions for three problems.
This paragraph outlines three possible solutions to the issues outlined above - FRJ (an NGO), immigration policy, and sJSC (another NGO). The first problem is the organisation FRJ (Forum for Refugees, Japan). In Japan, many NGOs, and a few companies support immigrants. FRJ gives advice and organizes these projects to help increase their efficiency ("About FRJ," n.d.). In fact, this solution is efficient because 65 immigrants coming from Myanmar were able to find jobs in Japan through FRJ's project (FRJ, 2014). The second solution is Japanese government's plan to accept more immigrants. Japan will experience a decrease in the population in the near future, so there are plans to accept 200,000 immigrants from foreign countries annually ("Iminn no ukeire," 2014). However, looking at recent acceptance ratios of refugees, it is not clear that this policy is being followed very quickly. The third solution is individual NGOs, for example the Jesuit Social Center Tokyo, which provides education of Japanese language (JSC, 2014). However, even combined there are still refugees without support so more NGOs, or more support for NGO and governmental projects, is needed. In summary there are three possible solutions – FRJ, immigration policy, and some NGOs - of which the NGOs are partly effective.
This essay first described the background of the situation in Somalia, then gave the kind of problems faced by refugees fled to neighboring countries, and after that looked at those faced by people who come to Japan as asylum seekers. In Kenya, especially Dadaab camp, there are many people who came from Somalia because of conflicts, but the more refugees increase, the more problems are caused such as the lack of public hygiene, child abuse, and strain on the Kenyan government. Refugees who continue on to the developed world have other problems - for example ing Japan they experience difficulty of getting visas, getting jobs, or with treatment in detention. To solve this problem, university students who want to help should volunteer with local NGOs supporting refugees, and perhaps push the university administration to support more young immigrants to study here.
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