INfo below is for Japanese-English translations.
Reverse them if you want to explain a difficult English term in a presentation to a Japanese audience.
1) Some words (sushi, sumo, karaoke) are world famous and don't need to be translated
2) Some words (yakkyu) have an exact equivalent in English (baseball) and should just be translated
3) Some words (takoyaki), do not have an equivalent, and are not well known
Use means/called/or for a direct translation
- Baseball, which is called Yakkyu in Japanese, is....
- Baseball, or "Yakkyu" in Japanese, is...
- Yakkyu, which is Japanese for Baseball, is...
How to give words that can't be translated
Use a definition pattern
My favourite Japanese food is Takoyaki, which is a kind of smalle, ball shaped, savoury pancake containing octopus.
Use a pause.
- If you were WRITING, this would be commas, brackets or hyphens.
- Name the thing -(, EXPLAIN or TRANSLATE -)- continue talking about it
- WHen you SPEAK, use a PAUSE and a DIFFERENT TONE OF VOICE to show the comma
- My favourite Japanese food is Takoyaki - a kind of small, ball shaped, savoury pancake - which I often eat at festivals.
Use 'OR' for a short translation or explanation
- Takoyaki, or octopus ball pancakes, are popular at festivals