Style - use verbs for citation

Malc Prentice

Which verb should I use?

Bored of "said", "found" and "noted"? Choose another!

1) Choose based on your field (Brexina, 2012)

2) Choose based on your meaning

These verbs mean "You and the author are both confident about the information":

said mentioned observed concluded wrote
reported emphasized pointed out stressed noted
illustrated established described showed
stated indicated demonstrated found confirmed

These verbs mean "The author is unsure. or I am unsure about the author":

assumed believed suggested maintained claimed
argued reasoned speculated implied posited
proposed hypothesized postulated contended highlighted the fact that
made the case that indicated estimated asserted presented evidence that

These verbs have more specific meaning:

Two authors agree: agreed confirmed

Two authors disagree: disagreed rejected replied contradicted

responded questioned challenged answered

Author's questions: asked, wondered ,questioned whether

Author's Suggestions: suggested ,advised, proposed ,recommended

Author's Predictions: predicted, speculated, warned that X will Y

Author admitted problems: admitted, acknowledged

3) Do NOT choose these

Verbs of opinion: e.g. guessed, thought

Phrasal verbs: e.g. came up with, worked out, found out

Slang verbs: e.g. reckoned, figured